PurCity

+300 million children are affected

3.7 million

deaths per year as a result of exposure to ambient (OUTDOOR) air pollution, which is mainly produced by vehicles (Transportation system)

4.3 million

deaths per year as a result of household exposure (INDDOR) to smoke from dirty cook-stoves, fuels and home animals (pets).

The more serious indoor problem is about furniture, home improvements and construction materials that emits TOXIC gases such as formaldehyde, benzene to our daily life and family

92%

of the world’s population lives in places where air quality exceeds WHO guideline limits

Pollution Hotspots

Bus Shelters

Transportation are a key source of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx, NO and NO2Sulfur Oxide (SOx) and VOC gases, which has been linked to respiratory diseases.

People underestimate the level of pollution around bus stops, the concentration of toxic gases is times bigger than in normal traffic roads.

Engines are often left running in stationary traffic and emit large quantities of NO2 and PM2.5 (Particulate Matter with the size of 2.5 micro meter), The same problem is relevant for traffic lights as well.

Industrial Development

  • Construction sites and power plants release a enormous number of toxic gases and substances

  • They significantly pollute the air and make it extremely dangerous for civilians passing by

  • Industrial pollution emission, not only damages our health but also our environment and creates the greenhouse effect, damaging the ozone layer

Indoor/Home Pollution

  • People spend 90% of their time indoors and breathe polluted indoor air roughly 22,000 times a day
  • Indoor pollution is highly underestimated and is often a cause of serious health problems especially in children and elderly
  • Indoor pollution causes various health issues starting from mild throat/lungs irritation and going to asthma and cancer

Sources

Selected major air pollutants and their sources (2015) 

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

What is it?

  • Major air pollutant which has a significant impacts on human health

  • One of the main reasons for air pollution causing severe ACIDIC RAIN and atmospheric particulates

Where does it come from?

  • Released naturally by volcanic activity

  • By-product of the burning of fossil fuels

How does it affect us?

  • Inhaling sulfur dioxide is associated with increased respiratory symptoms and disease, difficulty in breathing, and premature death

  • Extremely dangerous for asthmatics since it makes the condition more severe and dangerous

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

What is it? 

  • One of the most prominent air pollutants

  • Reddish-brown toxic with a characteristic sharp, biting odor

Where does it come from? 

  • Burning of fossil fuels: coal, oil, and gas

  • Motor vehicle exhaust (about 80%)

  • Using gas stoves with low ventilation in the room

How does it affect us? 

  • It is a highly toxic gas and leads to respiratory diseases, development of bronchitis, inflammation, reduced immune response, and may also have effects on the heart

Creates “brown haze”

Can also invoke asthma and create lung pain and troubled breathing

  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)

     What is it?

    • VOCs are a large group of chemicals that are found in many products we use to build and maintain our homes

    • Commonly used in paint, moth repellents, air fresheners, hobby supplies, aerosol sprays, etc.

    Where does it come from? 

    • VOCs are contained in paints and coatings and in fossil fuels

    • Motor vehicle exhaust, building materials, and furnishings

    • Office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper

    How does it affect us? 

    • Contribute to the greenhouse effect and smog

    • Health effects include eye, nose, and throat irritation; headaches, loss of coordination, etc.

    • Damage to the liver, kidney, and central nervous system

Creates “brown haze”

Can also invoke asthma and create lung pain and troubled breathing

Particulate Matter (PM2.5)

What is it? 

PMs are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas

  • PM2.5, demonstrating the size of these particles. Mainly particles as small as 0.25 micro millimeter can be called PM2.5

  • Fine particles contain the secondarily formed aerosols, combustion particles and re-condensed organic and metallic vapors

  • Coarse particles usually contain earth crustal materials and dust from road vehicles and industries

Where does it come from?

  • Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, etc

  • Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and various industrial processes also generate significant amounts of PMs

How does it affect us?

  • Particulate matter causes include asthma, lung cancer, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease

  • premature delivery, birth defects, low birth weight, and premature death are also effects of high PM exposure

Chlorofluorocarbons

What is it?

  • Greenhouse gases with even more power than CO2

  • Commonly known as freons

Where does it come from? 

  • Chlorofluorocarbons are released from air conditioners, refrigerators, aerosol sprays etc.

  • Releases may occur from industry producing and using them

How does it affect us?

  • Contribute to Global Warming

  • Chlorofluorocarbons affect the lungs, central nervous system, heart, liver, and kidneys

  • Cause drowsiness, slurred speech, disorientation, tingling sensations and weakness in the limbs

  • Exposure to extremely high levels of chlorofluorocarbons can result in DEATH